Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Original Articles :
Myanamr Health Research Registration 2023; 35(1-3): 73-86.

Role of Dual-biomarkers p-16 and Ki-67 Immunocytology in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Testing and HPV 16/18 Genotyping based Cervical Cancer Screening in Myanmar

Mu Mu Shwe1*, Lynn Pa Pa Aye1, Kham Mo Aung1, Nu Nu Lwin1, Khin Kay Thwe2, Su Su Hlaing2, Myint Myint Thinn3, Win Maw Tun1 and Zaw Than Htun1

Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, 2023; 35(1-3):73-86


Simultaneous detection of dual-biomarker p-16 and Ki-67 immunocytology provides a strong indicator of the presence of transforming Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Co-expression of p16 and Ki-67 in the same cell is strongly associated with established high-grade cervical diseases.



Worldwide, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide, with an estimated 604,127 new cases and 341,831 deaths in 2020 (GLOBOCAN 2020). In Southeast Asia (SEA), incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are about 68,623 cases and 38,530 deaths respectively.1


Study population and design

This study was a prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. This study was performed with the local administrative/health authorities in eleven wards of Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwady Region, Myanmar.

The goal of HPV-based cervical cancer screening is to avoid misdiagnosis and the over- or under- treatment it causes. While Pap cytology has had a positive impact on HPV infection and cervical cancer screening over the past 50 years, it is resource-intensive and subject to misinterpretation and missed disease.


The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to Director General, Department of Medical Research for encouragement of conducting this study. Our heartfelt gratitude goes to all medical doctors and staffs from Bogalay General Hospital and local authorities from Bogalay Township for their great effort in community screening in Bogalay Township.


The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.


1.      Mu Mu Shwe, Khin May Thin, Lei Lei Aye Thaung, Lynn Pa Pa Aye, Kham Mo Aung, May Zon Myint, et al. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing based Cervical Cancer Screening in Magway Region. Myanmar Health Science Research Journal 2021; 33(1-3): 74-82.

2.    Wright TC Jr, Stoler MH, Behrens CM, Apple R, Derion T & Wright TL. The ATHENA human papillomavirus study: design, methods, and baseline results. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2012; 206(1) :46. e1-46.0e11. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog. 2011. 07.024. Epub 2011 Jul 22. PMID: 21944226.

3.     Mu Mu Shwe, Kyi Kyi Nyunt, Lynn Pa Pa Aye, Kham Mo Aung, Myat Noe Swe, Ni Ni Aung, et al. Community-based Cervical Cancer Screening using Cobas HPV test and LBC in married women living in North Okkalapa Township, Yangon. Programme        and Abstracts of the 46th Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2018 Jan 8-12; Yangon, Myanmar. p. 57.