Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Original Articles :
Myanamr Health Research Registration 2023; 35(1-3): 19-26.

Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti against Temephos in Hinthada Township, Ayeyarwady Region

Than Myat Soe1*, Nwe Nwe Kyaw1, Myint Myint Aye1, Phyo Mon Oo1, Myo Thant2, Nyi Nyi Lwin2, Nay Yi Yi Lin2 and Moh Moh Htun 1

Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, 2023; 35(1-3):19-26


Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Temephos is mainly used as a larvicide to control mosquitoes in dengue endemic countries including Myanmar. In 2022, Hinthada township reported the highest number of dengue cases in Ayeyarwady Region. Therefore, the main object of the study was to assess the insecticide susceptibility status of dengue vector Ae. aegypti larval population against temephos in selected areas, Hinthada Township. The present study was laboratory based study and conducted from June to November, 2022. The Aedes larvae were collected from three urban areas and three rural areas of Hinthada township. Larvicide susceptibility test was conducted in Department of Medical Research (Pyin Oo Lwin) and WHO (2016) larval bioassays method was applied in the present study. Two dosages of temephos; diagnostic dosage (0.02 mg/l) and operational dosage (1 mg/l) were used in larval susceptibility test.



Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of World Health Organization (WHO) in recent years. Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes female mosquitoes mainly Aedes aegypti
(Ae. aegypti)
species. Aedes mosquitoes are also the vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever and zika viruses. The number of dengue cases reported to WHO increased over 8 fold over the last two decades, from 505,430 cases in 2000, to over 2.4 million in 2010, and 4.2 million in 2019.1


The present study was the laboratory based experimental study and conducted from June to November, 2022 in Hinthada Township which is located on the Irrawaddy River bank and in the northern portion of Ayeyarwady Region (N 17o 26′ and 17o 48′, E 95o 11′ and 95o 33′). In Hinthada Township, urban population was 24.7 % and rural population was 75.3% of total popu-lation. There are 21 wards in the urban area and 103 villages in the rural area in Hinthada Township.24 According to the recommendation of Public Health Department in Hinthada District, mos- quito collection for the laboratory experiments were conducted in three urban and three rural areas selected based on the 2022 reported dengue fever cases. Among the study areas, Tar Ka Lay, Ka Naung Su and U Yin (South) wards are urban areas, and Yone Tha Lin, Duya and Sit Kone villages are rural areas.


Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is accepted as a serious vector borne disease worldwide. As vector control is the primary method to control dengue, control programs need the limiting of the population of vectors to prevent the dengue outbreak.28 Temephos is the most common used larvicide not only in Myanmar but also in other dengue endemic countries for the suppression of Ae. aegypti larvae. However, continuous usage of temephos for many years can lead to the possible insecticide resistance. Very few studies have been done in Myanmar regarding to Ae. aegypti susceptibility status against temephos is a confined factor   to be the success of control programs.10


The authors would like to thank the Director General from Department of Medical Research, Ministry of Health for the permission to conduct the research. We are grateful to Township Medical Officer (TMO) and the staffs of Vector Borne Disease Control (VBDC) Unit in Hinthada Township, Ayeyarwady Region for their collaboration in the study.




1.       World Health Organization. Dengue and severe dengue/ Fact Sheet [Internet]. Available from: https:// www. / news-room / fact-sheets/detail/dengue-and-severe-dengue, 2020.

2.       World Health Organization. Dengue Bulletin; 41 December 2020. [Internet]. Available from: https:// www.who. int/ publications/ i/item/dengue-bulletin-vol-1?sequence=1&is Allowed=y

3.       Hlaing Min, Pa Pa Soe, Hla Moe & Win Myint Oo. Knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice of preschool teachers on dengue fever in Mandalay City, Myanmar. International Journal of Community Medicine Public Health 2021; 8(4): 1639.