Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Original Articles :
Myanamr Health Research Registration 2022; 34(1-3): 83-89.
DOI:

Metabolic Risk Markers in Leptin Resistant and Leptin Sensitive Obese Adult Subjects

Hnin Phyu Soe*, Sanda Kyaw and Ohnmar

Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 2022

ABSTRACT

Leptin was initially believed to be an anti-obesity hormone, owing to its metabolic effects. However, obese individuals become resistant to satiety and weight-reducing effect of leptin. Leptin resistance refers to a condition in which some actions of leptin are impaired, even so its concentration is high. This study aimed to determine the metabolic risk markers in leptin resistant and leptin sensitive obese adult subjects. This study was conducted in 123 obese adult subjects (BMI≥30 kg/m2) aged 20-60 years. To classify the leptin resistant and leptin sensitive obese groups, leptin-to-BMI ratio (1.55) was used as a cut-off point. Serum leptin level was determined by ELISA method. Fasting plasma glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were determined by enzymatic colorimetric methods. Metabolic syndrome was assessed by IDF criteria. Among the subjects, 39.8% (n=49) was leptin resistant and 60.2% (n=74) was leptin sensitive.


RESULT
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INTRODUCTION
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Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of cardiometabolic compli-cations.1 Individuals who had metabolic risk factors were more than eight-fold more likely to have coronary artery disease than individuals without these metabolic risk factors.2  

Leptin was initially believed to be an anti obesity hormone, owing to its metabolic effects. However, obese individuals become resistant to satiety and weight-reducing effect of leptin. Leptin resistance refers to a condition in which some actions of leptin are impaired, even so its concentration is high.3


SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
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This study was a cross-sectional study conducted in 123 obese adult subjects (Body Mass Index- BMI≥30 kg/m2) aged 20-60 years from Sanchaung, Dagon and Kamayut Townships, Yangon Region. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were done. Leptin-to-BMI ratio (1.55) was used as a cut-off point to classify the leptin resistant and leptin sensitive obese groups. Individuals with leptin-to-BMI ratio ≥1.55 are regarded as leptin resistant and <1.55 as leptin sen-sitive obese subjects. Serum leptin level was determined by ELISA method. Fasting plasma glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were determined by enzymatic colorimetric methods.


DISCUSSION
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In the present study, serum leptin level of the male obese subjects was lower than that of the female obese subjects. Variation in serum leptin level might be explained by difference in gender, fat percentage and other factors such as smoking, diet, genetics and physical activity.

Until now, there is no known cut-off point for leptin resistance and leptin sensitivity among obese subjects. Lee et al. in 2001 computed the ratio of leptin-to-BMI and proposed leptin-to-BMI ratio ≥90th percentile as leptin resistance.9 One previous study conducted on 44 obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) and 42 non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) between the age group 20-55 years and calculated leptin-to-BMI ratio. It was mentioned that the 90th percentile of leptin-to-BMI ratio was 1.55.10 Therefore, this value was used as a cut-off point for the present study to classify leptin resistant and leptin sensitive obese groups.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
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Research supervisors, Professor Ohnmar (Retired) and Professor Sanda Kyaw, are deeply acknowledged for their guidance, valuable suggestions and encouragement.


CONFLICT OF INTEREST
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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


REFERENCES
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1.    World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight 2016. [Accessed 20 February 2016]. Available from: http://www.who.int/ mediacentre/fact sheets/fs311/en/

2.          Després JP. Abdominal obesity: the most prevalent cause of the metabolic syndrome and related cardiometabolic risk. European Heart Journal Supplements 2006; 8 (Supple-ment B): B4-B12.

3.          Banks WA, Coon AB, Robinson SM, Moinuddin A, Shultz JM, Nakaoke R, et al. Triglycerides induce leptin resistance at the blood-brain barrier. Diabetes 2004; 53(5): 1253-1260.