Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Original Articles :
Myanamr Health Research Registration 2022; 34(1-3): 55-61.
DOI:

Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Cervical Cancer Screening Clinic Attendees

Lynn Pa Pa Aye1*, Htwe Htwe Nyunt1, Kay Khine Soe1, Mu Mu Shwe1, San Mya2, Mon Mon3, Wah Win Htike3 and Win Maw Tun1

Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 2022

ABSTRACT

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most common curable sexually transmitted bacterial infections. Nature of the infection
is asymptomatic in some cases. T
imely diagnosis followed by proper treatment can prevent long term reproductive sequelae. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Cervical Cancer Screening Clinic attendees at Department of Medical Research during 2016-2017. After obtaining informed consent, blood was taken from the participants. The Chlamydia trachomatis IgM and IgG were determined in sera by qualitative ELISA. Among  347 participants, 6.3% (22/347) was positive for IgM and 20.2% (70/347) was positive for IgG. Almost all of them (96.7%) were married and their education status is relatively high. More than half of study population 59.4% (206/347) revealed about the Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) symptoms such as vaginal discharge, pruritus, dysuria, lower abdominal pain and frequent urination. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM was positive in 6.3% (13/206) of women with STI symptoms and 6.4% (9/141) of asymptomatic women. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG was positive in 19.4% (40/206) of women with STI symptoms and 21.3% (30/141) of asympto-matic women. This study highlighted the rate of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in both symptomatic as well as asymptomatic women attending Clinic. The screening of Chlamydia infection in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women is beneficial and especially women presenting with STI symptoms should be screened to assure early diagnosis and timely treatment. Infection screening in antenatal, fertility and STI clinics and medical checkup sessions are advantageous to estimate the infection burden and beneficial for early diagnosis and timely treatment for the individuals.


RESULT
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INTRODUCTION
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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common diseases and the burden on the health care system and healthcare expenditure is great. Due to their high prevalence, particularly in developing countries, STIs result in significant productivity losses for individuals and communities, mostly where the majority of the population is less than 40 years of age. And STIs are responsible for an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries because of the effects on reproductive and child health; and also their role in facilitating the transmission of HIV infection. The STIs, often silent and without symptoms, can result in serious or fatal health consequences.1


SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
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A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on a total of 347 women who came to cervical cancer screening clinic (DMR), Yangon, Myanmar during 2016-2017. The study procedure began after proper explanation about the study and getting the signed informed consent. Relevant sociodemographic and clinical data were collected according to Proforma by interviewing the participant in the separate room where the participant can have privacy. Two milliliters of blood were collected from the participants with aseptic procedure. Blood samples were allowed to clot and then centrifuged for 10 minutes at 2000 rpm for serum separation. The sera were separated and kept at -20°C in deep freezer after proper labeling till performing the ELISA.


DISCUSSION
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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major global health problem with estimated 340 million new cases of curable infections occurring each year worldwide. Among them, Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common curable STIs worldwide.2

Ages of the participants in this study were relatively older than other studies. This is due to the usual phenomenon of the Cervical Cancer Screening Clinic attendees who are older than the STI clinic attendees. In 2010, a study done in STD clinic attendees was found to be younger age group than the present study. Ninety-eight percent were
from 16 to 45 years age group.9 Similarly, in 2014, a study had mentioned that the youngest age of the STD clinic attendees was 16 years and oldest age was 52 years with mean age of 31 years; so age of the participants were relatively younger than present study.10


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
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CONFLICT OF INTEREST
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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


REFERENCES
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1.       World Health Organization. Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2006-2015. WHO, 2006, Geneva, Switzerland.

2.       Newman L, Rowley J, Hoorn SV, Wijesooriya NS, Unemo M, Low N, et al. Global estimates of the prevalence
and incidence of four curable sexually trans-mitted infections in 2012 based on Systematic Review and Global Reporting. Public Library of Science ONE 2015; 10(12): e0143304.

3.       Mishori R, Mc Claskey EL & Winklerprins VJ. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management. American Family Physician 2012; 86(12): 1127-1132.