Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Original Articles :
Myanamr Health Research Registration 2022; 34(1-3): 40-45.
DOI:

Container Breeding Preference of Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti in Some Endemic Areas of Monywa Township, Sagaing Region

Than Myat Soe1*, Nwe Nwe Kyaw1, Myint Myint Aye1, Phyo Mon Oo 1 and Thant Zin2

Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 2022

ABSTRACT

Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) is found to be the principal vector of dengue virus. It is commonly found nearby human community and lays eggs preferentially in artificial containers which hold clean water.
The highest number of dengue case was recorded in Monywa Township within Sagaing Region during the last five years. The present study aimed to investigate container preference of dengue vector Ae. aegypti in some endemic areas of Monywa Township. Entomological surveillance was carried out in Myawaddy quarter, Kamma and Kyauksitpon villages from August, 2018 to July, 2019. A total of 50 houses in each locality were visited on the basis of systematic sampling method during every month. The potential breeding habitats in the study area like cementtank, metal container, plastic container, iron drum, earthen pot, flower pot, discarded tyre and other miscellaneous were screened. Altogether2907 water containers in Myawaddy quarter, 3322 water containersin Kamma village and 4182 water containers in Kyauksitpon village were searched in twelve months, out of which 527 (18.13%), 600 (18.06%) and 703 (16.81%), respectively, were found positive for Ae. aegypti breeding. Flower pot was recorded as the highest breeding preferenceatio in both Myawaddy quarter had 2.96 and Kamma village had1.72. However, the most breeding preferred ratio of Ae.aegypti wasfound 1.65 in discarded tyre for Kyauksitpon village. These results highlight that the weekly change of water in containers and elimination of non-essential containers need to be effective vector control in both urban and rural areas. Container management which reduces the sources of breeding habitats is one of the best approaches for controlling ofAedes mosquitoes.


RESULT
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INTRODUCTION
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Dengue is one of the major tropical mosquito borne diseases. It is a public health problem which has spread throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Dengue is endemic in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, East and West Africa, the Caribbean and the Americas. The incidence of dengue has increased dramatically around the world in recent decades.1 World Health Organization (WHO) estimated about 2.5 billion people (two-fifths of the world’s population) were at risk for dengue.2 In Myanmar, a total of 9,846 dengue cases with 54 deaths was recorded in 2017. Among them, 807 dengue cases were identified in Sagaing region containing Monywa Township.3


SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL
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The present study was carried out by field investigation based study design from August, 2018 to July, 2019. This study was conducted in Monywa Township. It is located in the central dry zone of Myanmar. Monywa is also situated on the eastern bank of the Chindwin River, 136 kilometers west of Mandalay. The city has a population of 372,095 and is divided into 31 wards.8

According to the recommendation of Vector Born Disease Control unit of Sagaing Region, the study site was selected three localities which are Myawaddy quarter, Kamma village, Kyauksitpon village on the basis of the last year dengue fever cases report for the investigation of mosquito larvae in Monywa Township.
DISCUSSION
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In the present study, eight types of different breeding habitats were investigated in three different areas in Monywa Township. These types were man made or artificial containers which are potential breeding sources of
Ae. aegypti larvae in the study areas. The overall results showed that 10411 containers with water were examined in all study areas, out of these 1830 (17.58%) containers were infested with Ae. aegypti larvae. The highest prevalence of larvae was found in earthen pot and followed by cement tank and other miscellaneous. In all study areas, domestic earthen pots were traditionally used as drinking water pots, water storing pots and cooking pots, respectively. And then, broken pots were discarded near the house. Moreover, water storage in cement tank was secondly found based on the observation because cement is high strength and keeps cool.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
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Authors are grateful to Director General of Department of Medical Research for providing us to conduct this research. We would like to thank staff of Medical Ento-mology Research Division (Pyin Oo Lwin Branch) and Vector Borne Disease Control Unit (Sagaing Region) for collaboration in sample collection and laboratory work.


CONFLICT OF INTEREST
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REFERENCES
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1.      Vijayakumar K, Sudheesh Kumar TK, Nujum ZT, Umarul F & Kuriakose A. A study on container breeding mosquitoes with special reference to Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thiruvananthapuram district, India. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 2014; 51(1): 27-32.

2.       Cheah WK, Ng KS, Marzilawati A & Lum LCS. A review of dengue research in Malaysia. Medical Journal of Malaysia 2014 Aug; 69 (Suppl A): 59-67.

3.      Myanmar Times, Dengue fever incidence declines[internet]. Available from: https:// www.mmtimes.com/ national-news/ Yangon/ 24151-dengue-fever-incidence-declines.html, 2018.