Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Original Articles :
Myanamr Health Research Registration 2022; 34(1-3): 33-39.

Vector Bionomic and Efficacy of Insecticides in Malaria Endemic Areas of Chaung Zone Township, Mon State, Myanmar

Maung Maung Mya1*, Sein Thaung1, Zarni Min Hein1, Yee Yee Myint1, Thu Zar Nyein Mu1, Yan Naung Maung Maung1 and Yan Sint2

Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 2022


In malaria prevention and control, use of insecticide treated bed nets and application of focal residual spray at selected areas are important part of the programme in endemic regions. The study on vector bionomics and susceptibility of Anopheles (An.) mosquito vectors for malaria was studied at Kayinwinsein, Piankadar, and Kataungsein villages in Chaungzon Township, Mon State from April 2017 to March 2018. A total of 831 Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to 7 species were collected from the villages of Bilukyun, Chaungzon Township. The major vector An. dirus 24(2.89%) and secondary vectors An. tessellatus 40(4.81%) An. vagus 72(8.66%), An. maculatus 75(9.03%), An. aconitus 72(8.66%), An. jamesii 23(2.77%), An. barbirostris 326(39.23%) and An. hyrcanus 199(23.95%). Main vector An. dirus was collected in wet and cool season although in dry season An. dirus was disappear in all study villages due to high temperature and dryness of their breeding habitats. Main vector An. dirus was collected at 22:00-23:00 hour in biting outdoor collection in wet and cool seasons. All total of 146 domestic water wells (50, 50, 46) were searched 3 dips/well using WHO dipper and found that 12,8,12 wells were positive with An. dirus larvae in Kayinwinsein, Paingkadar and Kataungsein villages, respectively.
An. vagus larvae were found in foot prints and small muddy water pools. All collected An. mosquitoes were found susceptible to Deltamethrin 0.05%, Permethrin 0.75% and Cyfuthrin 0.15%.



Previously, malaria is one of the major public health problems in Myanmar although now it is still a main contributor to the morbidity and mortality in border and hard-to-reach areas in the country.1 In malaria prevention and control, use of insecticide treated bed nets and application of focal residual spray at selected areas are important part of the programme in endemic regions. An. dirus and An. minimus are major vectors of malaria in forested and forested foot hill areas of the country and An. annularis is
a local vector of malaria in Rakhine State.
Anopheles  sundaicus and An. subpictus
 are abundantly found in coastal areas of Rakhine, Mon and Tanintharyi Regions.


Study area

Kayinwinsein, Piankadar, and Kataungsein villages were selected in Bilu Kyun, Chaungzon Township, Mon State.

Study period

April 2017 to March 2018

Mosquito’s population

It was determined all collected mosquitoes with different collection methods.

Selection criteria

Three villages which were malaria cases occurred annually and the population was about 200. These villages were randomly selected   and   at   least  10 kilometers  away

from each other.


Previously Mon state is a malaria endemic area in Myanmar and malaria transmission is high in border areas, rubber plantation sites, hard-to-reach and forested hilly areas.14 Kayinwinsein, Piankadar and Kataungsein villages are situated in Bilu island Township, Mawlamyaing District in Mon State.

Total of 169,339 and 323 Anopheles mos-quitoes from Bilu Island were collected in dry, rainy and cold season, respectively. High number of An. dirus was collected in rainy season followed by cold season and dry season in both Katine Htit and Kine Taw villages. Secondary vector of An. vagus,
An. maculatus, An. aconitus were also collected in all season. Same result has been found by other researcher in Kayin State, mentioned that main vector An. minimus and An. dirus adult and larvae were collected from Katine Htit and Kine Taw villages in rainy season and secondary vector An. culicifacies were collected in highest number followed by main vector An. minimus in both Katine Htit and Kine Taw villages. Anopheles dirus was observed in rainy season and cold season in both areas.15




1.     National Elimination Plan (2016-2030) vision Myanmar free from malaria by 2030. Goals interrupt transmission & eliminate indigenous malaria by 2030.

2.          Khin Maung Kyi. Malaria vectors in Burma Anopheles balabacensis balabacensis Baisas, 1936. Union of Burma Journal of Life Sciences 1970; 3(3): 217-225.

3.          Maung Maung Mya, Myat Phone Kyaw, Sein Thaung, Tin Tin Aung & Yan Naung Maung Maung. Vector bionomics and potential vectors of malaria in Kamamaung Township, Phapun District, Kayin State. Programme and Abstracts of the 44th Myanmar Health Research Congress; 2016 Jan 5-9; Yangon, Myanmar. P. 77.

4.          Yukich JO, Lengeler C, Tediosi F, Brown N, Mulligan JA, Chavasse D, et al. Costs and consequences of large-scale vector control for malaria. Malaria Journal 2008; 7: 258.