Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal
Original Articles :
Myanamr Health Research Registration 2022; 34(1-3): 10-17.

Molecular Detection of Temephos Insecticide Resistance Mutation in Ace- Gene of Aedes aegypti Populations from Monywa Township, Myanmar

Than Myat Soe, Myat Htut Nyunt, Nwe Nwe Kyaw, Myint Myint Aye, Aung Ye Kyaw & Thant Zin

Myanmar Health Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 2022


Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika in human population. Insecticide resistance of mosquito vectors is at a critical tipping point in public health.  Temephos which is one of the organophosphate insecticides has been utilized in dengue vector control for more than 0 years all over the world. Ace- gene is linked to temephos resistance and mutations in Ace- gene have been reported in some countries. However, no record for Ace- gene detection of  Ae. aegypti was found in Myanmar. The present study was conducted to detect the Ace- gene with temephos insecticide resistance mutations in Ae. aegypti populations of dengue endemic areas from Monywa Township. Experimental laboratory based study design was carried out from June, 09 to May, 00.  Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from three study areas; one urban (Myawaddy quarter) and two rural areas (Kamma village and Kyauksitpon village) in Monywa Township. Larval insec-ticide bioassay test was performed by using the WHO method with temephos 0.0 mg/l (diagnostic dosage). Resistant larvae after tested with temephos were identified Ace- gene by PCR. Total of 5 Ace- gene samples
(5 samples in each study area) were sequenced both forward and reverse primers by 500 series genetic analyzer.
Ae. aegypti larval mortalities of Kyauksitpon village, Kamma village and Myawaddy quarter were 96.95%, 9.00% and 9.9% after  hours exposure with temephos. Mutation was detected in T506T location with 0. frequency (.%) in Ae. aegypti population of Myawaddy quarter. However, mutation in G9S location of Ace- gene was not found in all study populations. This study indicated that the presence of temephos insecticide resistance mutation was appeared in Ae. aegypti population. Thus, regular monitoring is essentially needed to evaluate the temephos resistance of Ae. aegypti population in Monywa Township and also in other dengue endemic areas in Myanmar where OP insecticide has been widely used.



Aedes aegypti is the main vector which concerns to the public health as it can transmit various serotypes of viral pathogens causing dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika. It has become the major indirect cause of morbidity and mortality of human worldwide.  According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 50-00 million dengue infections occur annually, with a 0-fold increase in global incidence observed over the past 50 years. In Myanmar, total of ,7 dengue cases with  deaths were reported in 08.


The present study was an experimental laboratory-based study and conducted from June, 09 to May, 00. The field activity was conducted in Monywa Township and the laboratory activities were conducted in Medical Entomology Research Division, Department of Medical Research (Pyin Oo Lwin Branch) and Bioinformatic Division, Advanced Molecular Research Center in Department of Medical Research (Head Quarter, Yangon). Monywa is located in the central dry zone of Myanmar (.6°N, 95.56° E) with the population of 7,095 inhabited in 6 quarters and 57 villages. According to the recommendation of Vector Born Disease Control (VBDC) unit of Sagaing Region and based on the number of reported dengue cases in 08, three areas (Myawaddy quarter, Kamma village and Kyauksitpon village) in Monywa Township were selected in the present study.


Temephos is a non-systemic organophosphorus insecticide, mainly used as a larvicide to control mosquitoes, including in domestic water containers and it could be used for storing drinking-water. The toxicity of this insecticide was low and unlikely to present acute hazard for human.9 An important indicator of insecticide resistance to organo-phosphate is the loss of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) sensitivity. AChE is a widely distri-buted enzyme within the nervous system, which mediates hydrolysis of the neuro-transmitter acetylcholine throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems at the postsynaptic membrane through terminating nerve impulses.0


We would like to express our sincere gratitude to the Department of Medical Research, Ministry of Health in Myanmar for providing funding support to conduct this research. We are also grateful to the staff of Medical Entomology Research Division (Pyin Oo Lwin Branch), and Bioinformatic Division, Advanced Molecular Research Center in Department of Medical Research (Head Quarter, Yangon), and Vector Borne Disease Control Unit (Sagaing Region) for their collaboration in the study.



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